Big bang

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Videos, Bilder und Infos zu "The Big Bang Theory" mit Jim Parsons, Johnny Galecki und Kaley Cuoco. - Alle Folgen auch live online streamen. Big Bang (Eigenschreibweise: BIGBANG, koreanisch: 빅뱅) ist eine südkoreanische Boygroup, bestehend aus fünf Mitgliedern, welche vom Label YG. vor 3 Tagen Sheldons Zwang immer dreimal zu anzuklopfen, bevor er einen Raum betritt, sorgte über die Jahre für viele Lacher bei "The Big Bang Theory". Da ProSieben vom Rechteinhaber die mehrfache Ausstrahlung der Episoden innerhalb der Vertragslaufzeit lizenziert hatte und eine Episode innerhalb von 24 Stunden sogar beliebig oft ausgestrahlt werden durfte, wurde jede Folge umso kostengünstiger, je häufiger sie lief. Ich habe gerade erst gelesen wann diese Frage gestellt wurde. Staffel 6 ab Ende Januar bei ProSieben. Bei ProSieben könnt ihr euch bis zum Start der slotty vegas askgamblers. Online Download — Year Jala casino Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe. Archived from the original on August 4, Archived from the original on August 3, I absolutely loved it from the first moment. During the s other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model[59] the oscillatory universe originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard Tolman [60] and Fritz Zwicky 's tired light hypothesis. These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium. Hubble Solves Cosmic 'Whodunit Symmetry breaking phase transitions put the fundamental forces of physics and the parameters of elementary particles into their present form. Problems playing these files? According to the theories of physics, Beste Spielothek in Vollbüttel finden we were to look at the Universe one second after the Big Bang, what we would see is a billion degree sea of neutrons, protons, electrons, anti-electrons positronsphotons, and tennis games online. This primordial singularity is itself sometimes called "the Big Bang", [22] but the term can also refer to a more generic early hot, dense phase Rain Dance Slots Free Play & Real Money Casinos [notes 1] of big bang universe. Dictionary Entries near big bang bigarade Bigarreau cherry big band big bang big bang casino slots free games Big Bear big beat. The Korea Times in Korean. This could have carved off different sections — different universes — with potentially different laws of physics. As per Pestana casino park hotel funchal portugal Korea's mandatory military service requirementT.

Mass creates gravity, gravity creates pull, the pulling must slow the expansion. But supernovae observations showed that the expansion of the Universe, rather than slowing, is accelerating.

Something, not like matter and not like ordinary energy, is pushing the galaxies apart. This "stuff" has been dubbed dark energy , but to give it a name is not to understand it.

Whether dark energy is a type of dynamical fluid, heretofore unknown to physics, or whether it is a property of the vacuum of empty space, or whether it is some modification to general relativity is not yet known.

Helpful Links Organization and Staff. Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Related Content Cosmic Distance Scale. Readying the Webb Telescope for Launch.

Hubble Solves Cosmic 'Whodunit Hubble Finds Dusty Material Enveloping Universe is Expanding Faster than Expected.

Gravitational Waves Remain Elusive. Korea Music Content Industry Association. Archived from the original on August 5, Archived from the original on February 14, Archived from the original on April 22, Archived from the original on March 24, Retrieved March 23, YG Family 15th Anniversary Concert".

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Archived from the original on June 15, I'm interested in majoring in fashion " in Korean. Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved January 26, Big Bang Concert in New Jersey".

The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 18, Archived from the original on April 4, Retrieved December 3, Beyond In-flight Magazine 12 ed.

Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved May 29, Retrieved July 12, Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved November 12, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved January 1, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved December 22, The Sydney Morning Herald.

Bigbang explosive for their "Made" tour". Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved February 16, Archived from the original on August 25, Archived from the original on May 29, Archived from the original on February 16, A woman who moves into an apartment across the hall from two brilliant but socially awkward physicists shows them how little they know about life outside of the laboratory.

Chuck Lorre , Bill Prady. How Much Have You Seen? How many episodes of The Big Bang Theory have you seen?

Share this Rating Title: The Big Bang Theory — 8. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Episodes Next Episode Thursday, November E9 The Citation Negation.

E8 The Consummation Deviation 7. E7 The Grant Allocation Derivation 7. Won 1 Golden Globe. Learn more More Like This. Modern Family TV Series Stranger Things TV Series Game of Thrones TV Series How I Met Your Mother — The Flash TV Series Grey's Anatomy TV Series Sherlock TV Series Black Mirror TV Series Arrow TV Series Edit Cast Series cast summary: Leonard Hofstadter episodes, Jim Parsons Sheldon Cooper episodes, Kaley Cuoco Howard Wolowitz episodes, Kunal Nayyar Raj Koothrappali episodes, Melissa Rauch Bernadette Rostenkowski episodes, Mayim Bialik Smart Is The New Sexy.

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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Whether dark energy Beste Spielothek in Oberfrankenhain finden a type of dynamical fluid, heretofore unknown to physics, or whether it is a property of the vacuum of empty space, or whether it is some modification to general relativity is not yet known. After a year of delay, Made was released in December A music video was also filmed for promotion. The Big Bang Theory". Archived from the original on June 20, Modernity - modern era. Archived from the original on February 12, Japan complimented the group for their involvement in their Big Ben online video slot - spil Big Ben slot gratis, stating that "perhaps by contributing to their own materials, not only do they become in sync with one another, but each person's personality stands bdo dortmund. The free casino slots for fun eventually became their break-out hit. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter protons, neutrons, and electrons but it is unclear exactly what it is made out of. Besonders aufmerksame Fans entdecken dabei auch Widersprüche mit dem Ableger "Young Sheldon" oder überlegen sich ganz neue Zusammenhänge, die die Serie in einem anderen Licht erscheinen lassen. Aber selbst wenn es 20 Staffeln werden sollten: Penny stellt Bernadette Howard vor und nach Anfangsschwierigkeiten finden die beiden zusammen und werden ein Paar. Überraschend offen sprechen die Beteiligten über das Ende der Serie, das erstmals ins Gespräch kam, als TBBT um die Staffeln 8, 9 und 10 erweitert wurde und zu einem Serien-Fuchsbau wurde, ein einst solides Gebäude, an das bei Bedarf neue wankende Anbauten gesteckt werden. Stuart gelingt es immer wieder, ihnen Comics oder Spiele anzubieten, denen sie nicht widerstehen können. Und nun werden die Woche kürzer. Januar bis zum Seine Mutter Mary, eine wiedergeborene Christin , kümmert sich auch noch um ihren erwachsenen Sohn und hat mehrere Auftritte in der Serie. The Big Bang Theory. Charakteristisch für Sheldon ist auch seine Unfähigkeit zu lügen. Wie bereits in der Vorsaison wurden die ersten Folgen jeweils montags ausgestrahlt, ehe die Serie ab dem 5. Zeitweise lebt ein Zigaretten rauchendes Äffchen, das in einem ihrer Experimente benutzt wurde, in ihrer Wohnung. La Voz del Interior. In Staffel 12 kommt Pennys Vater zurück prosieben. Industry Association Of Korea.

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Stuart ist in dieser Geschichte auch dick. Gaon Album Chart - September Deine Serien Serien Serienfuchs. My Heaven Big Bang. Archiviert vom Original am 2. BigBang Performs at the Prudential Center. Atlanta Medical Staffel 1 Episode 2:

Big Bang Video

BIGBANG - ‘에라 모르겠다(FXXK IT)’ M/V

Archived from the original on December 17, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved April 1, Retrieved May 18, Archived from the original on November 30, Archived from the original on March 18, Retrieved December 6, Archived from the original on September 10, Retrieved August 30, Closing Ceremony — As it happened".

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Retrieved March 26, Retrieved September 11, Archived from the original on May 14, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved November 8, Archived from the original on February 17, Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved May 26, The trend of J-pop 'Electronica' " in Korean.

Archived from the original on November 23, Retrieved February 28, HanKyung News in Korean. Archived from the original on March 23, Retrieved January 7, Archived from the original on August 16, Archived from the original on June 3, Retrieved May 13, Big Bang Made Series 'A ' ".

Archived from the original on June 4, Archived from the original on December 13, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved May 24, P's South Korean Military Service".

Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 14, DC News in Korean. Archived from the original on June 18, Archived from the original on January 6, Archived from the original on February 12, Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved May 4, Archived from the original on May 6, Chosun Weekly in Korean.

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Archived from the original on June 15, I'm interested in majoring in fashion " in Korean. Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved January 26, Big Bang Concert in New Jersey".

The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 18, Archived from the original on April 4, Retrieved December 3, Beyond In-flight Magazine 12 ed.

Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved May 29, Retrieved July 12, Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved November 12, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved January 1, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved December 22, The Sydney Morning Herald.

Bigbang explosive for their "Made" tour". Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved February 16, Archived from the original on August 25, Archived from the original on May 29, Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved January 10, Archived from the original on May 26, Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved December 8, Archived from the original on April 29, Plotting a K-pop collaboration, she settled on working with the Big Bang boys, who were just as keen on partnering up with her.

Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved March 5, I first heard K-pop in about , around three years after I moved to London.

My older sister came across this group on YouTube called Big Bang, and introduced me to them. I absolutely loved it from the first moment.

Archived from the original on August 19, Retrieved February 17, However, there is just one catch. Retrieved November 11, Archived from the original on August 10, If you asked us to pick a senior artist that we really admire, most of us would pick Big Bang.

Before we shoot a music video, we try to imitate the gestures and expressions that they do. The angles that Taeyang sunbae-nim makes while dancing, and even the way he moves his mouth while wearing sunglasses.

Archived from the original on June 14, As group, it who inspires Monsta X as a whole would have to be Bigbang. My Daily in Korean. We are inspired by Big Bang.

We want to look up to their musical spectrum and performances, as well as their group and solo activities.

Archived from the original on December 20, I admire Big Bang because of their powerful performances on stage. Event occurs at 3: I have respected Big Bang from since I was In their music and fashion.

I've learn a lot of things from them. From debut until now I've been his fan. Since seeing his constantly growing and developing appearance, it seems really impressive.

Archived from the original on June 17, Star Today in Korean. Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 28, Musically, Grimes provided one of her more fangirl moments on Twitter, writing "G Dragon i love you" and "G-Dragon is definitely the pinnacle of pop for me".

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Fantastic Babys Made V. Shouting out to the World! Yoo Byung-jae Ahn Young-mi. Teddy Park production discography Choice Bang Ye-dam Katie Kim.

Accolades received by Big Bang. Let me love — Jo Sungmo Chapter 4: Her — BTS SG Wannabe — "Partner for Life" Big Bang — " Lies " Wonder Girls — " Nobody " Psy — " Gangnam Style " Cho Yong-pil — "Bounce" Taeyang — " Eyes, Nose, Lips " Big Bang — " Bang Bang Bang " Twice — " Cheer Up " Twice — " Signal ".

Forbes Korea Power Celebrity. Discography Videography Songs recorded Songs written Awards and nominations. One of a Kind Kwon Ji Yong.

Discography Awards and nominations Songs recorded. Solar Rise White Night. The Hidden Card Out of Control. Family Outing What's Up. Let's Talk About Love.

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Problems playing this file? Problems playing these files? Wikimedia Commons has media related to Big Bang Korean band. Big Bang " Gara Gara Go! This places a limit or a past horizon on the most distant objects that can be observed.

Conversely, because space is expanding, and more distant objects are receding ever more quickly, light emitted by us today may never "catch up" to very distant objects.

This defines a future horizon , which limits the events in the future that we will be able to influence. The presence of either type of horizon depends on the details of the FLRW model that describes our universe.

Our understanding of the universe back to very early times suggests that there is a past horizon, though in practice our view is also limited by the opacity of the universe at early times.

So our view cannot extend further backward in time, though the horizon recedes in space. If the expansion of the universe continues to accelerate , there is a future horizon as well.

It is popularly reported that Hoyle, who favored an alternative " steady state " cosmological model, intended this to be pejorative, [43] but Hoyle explicitly denied this and said it was just a striking image meant to highlight the difference between the two models.

The Big Bang theory developed from observations of the structure of the universe and from theoretical considerations. In Vesto Slipher measured the first Doppler shift of a " spiral nebula " spiral nebula is the obsolete term for spiral galaxies , and soon discovered that almost all such nebulae were receding from Earth.

He did not grasp the cosmological implications of this fact, and indeed at the time it was highly controversial whether or not these nebulae were "island universes" outside our Milky Way.

Starting in , Hubble painstakingly developed a series of distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder , using the inch 2.

This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher. In Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recession velocity—now known as Hubble's law.

In the s and s almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady state universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady state theory.

A beginning in time was "repugnant" to him. If the world has begun with a single quantum , the notions of space and time would altogether fail to have any meaning at the beginning; they would only begin to have a sensible meaning when the original quantum had been divided into a sufficient number of quanta.

If this suggestion is correct, the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time. During the s other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model , [59] the oscillatory universe originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard Tolman [60] and Fritz Zwicky 's tired light hypothesis.

After World War II , two distinct possibilities emerged. One was Fred Hoyle's steady state model , whereby new matter would be created as the universe seemed to expand.

In this model the universe is roughly the same at any point in time. Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from radio source counts , began to favor Big Bang over Steady State.

The discovery and confirmation of the CMB in secured the Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the universe.

Ellis published papers where they showed that mathematical singularities were an inevitable initial condition of general relativistic models of the Big Bang.

In , Alan Guth made a breakthrough in theoretical work on resolving certain outstanding theoretical problems in the Big Bang theory with the introduction of an epoch of rapid expansion in the early universe he called " inflation ".

This issue was later resolved when new computer simulations, which included the effects of mass loss due to stellar winds , indicated a much younger age for globular clusters.

The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the universe according to Hubble's law as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies , discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution , and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures , [76] These are sometimes called the "four pillars" of the Big Bang theory.

Precise modern models of the Big Bang appeal to various exotic physical phenomena that have not been observed in terrestrial laboratory experiments or incorporated into the Standard Model of particle physics.

Of these features, dark matter is currently subjected to the most active laboratory investigations. Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible.

Viable, quantitative explanations for such phenomena are still being sought. These are currently unsolved problems in physics.

Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are redshifted—the light emitted from them has been shifted to longer wavelengths.

This can be seen by taking a frequency spectrum of an object and matching the spectroscopic pattern of emission lines or absorption lines corresponding to atoms of the chemical elements interacting with the light.

These redshifts are uniformly isotropic, distributed evenly among the observed objects in all directions. If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated.

For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder. When the recessional velocities are plotted against these distances, a linear relationship known as Hubble's law is observed: Hubble's law has two possible explanations.

Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies—which is untenable given the Copernican principle —or the universe is uniformly expanding everywhere.

However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.

That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the Cosmological principle and the Copernican principle, which together with Hubble's law have no other explanation.

Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogeneous , [20] supporting the Cosmological principle that the universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence.

If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.

Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in proved the Copernican principle, that, on a cosmological scale, the Earth is not in a central position.

Uniform cooling of the CMB over billions of years is explainable only if the universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.

In Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson serendipitously discovered the cosmic background radiation, an omnidirectional signal in the microwave band.

Through the s the radiation was found to be approximately consistent with a black body spectrum in all directions; this spectrum has been redshifted by the expansion of the universe, and today corresponds to approximately 2.

This tipped the balance of evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, and Penzias and Wilson were awarded a Nobel Prize in The surface of last scattering corresponding to emission of the CMB occurs shortly after recombination , the epoch when neutral hydrogen becomes stable.

Prior to this, the universe comprised a hot dense photon-baryon plasma sea where photons were quickly scattered from free charged particles.

Mather and George Smoot were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their leadership in these results. During the following decade, CMB anisotropies were further investigated by a large number of ground-based and balloon experiments.

In — several experiments, most notably BOOMERanG , found the shape of the universe to be spatially almost flat by measuring the typical angular size the size on the sky of the anisotropies.

In early , the first results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP were released, yielding what were at the time the most accurate values for some of the cosmological parameters.

The results disproved several specific cosmic inflation models, but are consistent with the inflation theory in general.

Other ground and balloon based cosmic microwave background experiments are ongoing. Using the Big Bang model it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4 , helium-3 , deuterium, and lithium-7 in the universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen.

This value can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. The ratios predicted by mass, not by number are about 0.

The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars are in agreement with the current state of the Big Bang theory.

A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then, larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.

Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies which are observed as they were in the early universe appear very different from nearby galaxies observed in a more recent state.

Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently, appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.

These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model. Observations of star formation , galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures, agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the universe, and are helping to complete details of the theory.

In , astronomers found what they believe to be pristine clouds of primordial gas by analyzing absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.

Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars.

These two clouds of gas contain no elements heavier than hydrogen and deuterium. The age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with other estimates using the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.

The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of very low temperature absorption lines in gas clouds at high redshift.

Observations have found this to be roughly true, but this effect depends on cluster properties that do change with cosmic time, making precise measurements difficult.

Future gravitational waves observatories might be able to detect primordial gravitational waves, relics of the early universe, up to less than a second after the Big Bang.

As with any theory, a number of mysteries and problems have arisen as a result of the development of the Big Bang theory.

Some of these mysteries and problems have been resolved while others are still outstanding. Proposed solutions to some of the problems in the Big Bang model have revealed new mysteries of their own.

For example, the horizon problem , the magnetic monopole problem , and the flatness problem are most commonly resolved with inflationary theory , but the details of the inflationary universe are still left unresolved and many, including some founders of the theory, say it has been disproven.

It is not yet understood why the universe has more matter than antimatter. However, observations suggest that the universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter.

A process called baryogenesis was hypothesized to account for the asymmetry. For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied.

These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium.

Measurements of the redshift — magnitude relation for type Ia supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe has been accelerating since the universe was about half its present age.

To explain this acceleration, general relativity requires that much of the energy in the universe consists of a component with large negative pressure , dubbed "dark energy".

Dark energy, though speculative, solves numerous problems. Dark energy also helps to explain two geometrical measures of the overall curvature of the universe, one using the frequency of gravitational lenses , and the other using the characteristic pattern of the large-scale structure as a cosmic ruler.

Negative pressure is believed to be a property of vacuum energy , but the exact nature and existence of dark energy remains one of the great mysteries of the Big Bang.

Therefore, matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant.

The dark energy component of the universe has been explained by theorists using a variety of competing theories including Einstein's cosmological constant but also extending to more exotic forms of quintessence or other modified gravity schemes.

During the s and the s, various observations showed that there is not sufficient visible matter in the universe to account for the apparent strength of gravitational forces within and between galaxies.

In addition, the assumption that the universe is mostly normal matter led to predictions that were strongly inconsistent with observations.

In particular, the universe today is far more lumpy and contains far less deuterium than can be accounted for without dark matter. While dark matter has always been controversial, it is inferred by various observations: Indirect evidence for dark matter comes from its gravitational influence on other matter, as no dark matter particles have been observed in laboratories.

Many particle physics candidates for dark matter have been proposed, and several projects to detect them directly are underway.

Additionally, there are outstanding problems associated with the currently favored cold dark matter model which include the dwarf galaxy problem [] and the cuspy halo problem.

The horizon problem results from the premise that information cannot travel faster than light. In a universe of finite age this sets a limit—the particle horizon —on the separation of any two regions of space that are in causal contact.

There would then be no mechanism to cause wider regions to have the same temperature. A resolution to this apparent inconsistency is offered by inflationary theory in which a homogeneous and isotropic scalar energy field dominates the universe at some very early period before baryogenesis.

During inflation, the universe undergoes exponential expansion, and the particle horizon expands much more rapidly than previously assumed, so that regions presently on opposite sides of the observable universe are well inside each other's particle horizon.

The observed isotropy of the CMB then follows from the fact that this larger region was in causal contact before the beginning of inflation.

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts that during the inflationary phase there would be quantum thermal fluctuations , which would be magnified to cosmic scale.

These fluctuations serve as the seeds of all current structure in the universe. If inflation occurred, exponential expansion would push large regions of space well beyond our observable horizon.

A related issue to the classic horizon problem arises because in most standard cosmological inflation models, inflation ceases well before electroweak symmetry breaking occurs, so inflation should not be able to prevent large-scale discontinuities in the electroweak vacuum since distant parts of the observable universe were causally separate when the electroweak epoch ended.

The magnetic monopole objection was raised in the late s. Grand unified theories predicted topological defects in space that would manifest as magnetic monopoles.

These objects would be produced efficiently in the hot early universe, resulting in a density much higher than is consistent with observations, given that no monopoles have been found.

This problem is also resolved by cosmic inflation , which removes all point defects from the observable universe, in the same way that it drives the geometry to flatness.

Curvature is negative, if its density is less than the critical density ; positive, if greater; and zero at the critical density, in which case space is said to be flat.

The problem is that any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the universe today remains very close to flat.

For instance, even at the relatively late age of a few minutes the time of nucleosynthesis , the density of the universe must have been within one part in 10 14 of its critical value, or it would not exist as it does today.

Physics may conclude that time did not exist before 'Big Bang', but 'started' with the Big Bang and hence there might be no 'beginning', 'before' or potentially 'cause' and instead always existed.

Before observations of dark energy, cosmologists considered two scenarios for the future of the universe. If the mass density of the universe were greater than the critical density , then the universe would reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse.

It would become denser and hotter again, ending with a state similar to that in which it started—a Big Crunch. Alternatively, if the density in the universe were equal to or below the critical density, the expansion would slow down but never stop.

Star formation would cease with the consumption of interstellar gas in each galaxy; stars would burn out, leaving white dwarfs , neutron stars , and black holes.

Very gradually, collisions between these would result in mass accumulating into larger and larger black holes. The average temperature of the universe would asymptotically approach absolute zero —a Big Freeze.

Eventually, black holes would evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. The entropy of the universe would increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death.

Modern observations of accelerating expansion imply that more and more of the currently visible universe will pass beyond our event horizon and out of contact with us.

The eventual result is not known. This theory suggests that only gravitationally bound systems, such as galaxies, will remain together, and they too will be subject to heat death as the universe expands and cools.

Other explanations of dark energy, called phantom energy theories, suggest that ultimately galaxy clusters, stars, planets, atoms, nuclei, and matter itself will be torn apart by the ever-increasing expansion in a so-called Big Rip.

The Big Bang as the origin of the universe: One of the common misconceptions about the Big Bang model is the belief that it was the origin of the universe.

However, the Big Bang model does not comment about how the universe came into being. Current conception of the Big Bang model assumes the existence of energy, time, and space, and does not comment about their origin or the cause of the dense and high temperature initial state of the universe.

The Big Bang was "small": It is misleading to visualize the Big Bang by comparing its size to everyday objects. When the size of the universe at Big Bang is described, it refers to the size of the observable universe, and not the entire universe.

Hubble's law violates the special theory of relativity: Hubble's law predicts that galaxies that are beyond Hubble Distance recede faster than the speed of light.

However, special relativity does not apply beyond motion through space. Hubble's law describes velocity that results from expansion of space, rather than through space.

Doppler redshift vs cosmological red-shift: Although similar, the cosmological red-shift is not identical to the Doppler redshift.

The Doppler redshift is based on special relativity, which does not consider the expansion of space. On the contrary, the cosmological red-shift is based on general relativity, in which the expansion of space is considered.

Although they may appear identical for nearby galaxies, it may cause confusion if the behavior of distant galaxies is understood through the Doppler redshift.

While the Big Bang model is well established in cosmology, it is likely to be refined. The Big Bang theory, built upon the equations of classical general relativity, indicates a singularity at the origin of cosmic time; this infinite energy density is regarded as impossible in physics.

Still, it is known that the equations are not applicable before the time when the universe cooled down to the Planck temperature , and this conclusion depends on various assumptions, of which some could never be experimentally verified.

Also see Planck epoch. One proposed refinement to avoid this would-be singularity is to develop a correct treatment of quantum gravity. It is not known what could have preceded the hot dense state of the early universe or how and why it originated, though speculation abounds in the field of cosmogony.

Proposals in the last two categories see the Big Bang as an event in either a much larger and older universe or in a multiverse. As a description of the origin of the universe, the Big Bang has significant bearing on religion and philosophy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Chronology of the universe. Gravitational singularity and Planck epoch. Cosmic inflation and baryogenesis.

Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background radiation. Accelerating expansion of the universe. List of cosmological horizons.

History of the Big Bang theory. Timeline of cosmological theories. XDF size compared to the size of the Moon — several thousand galaxies , each consisting of billions of stars , are in this small view.

XDF view — each light speck is a galaxy — some of these are as old as XDF image shows fully mature galaxies in the foreground plane — nearly mature galaxies from 5 to 9 billion years ago — protogalaxies , blazing with young stars , beyond 9 billion years.

Hubble's law and Metric expansion of space. Distance measures cosmology and Scale factor universe. Cosmic microwave background radiation.

Galaxy formation and evolution and Structure formation. List of unsolved problems in physics. Problem of why there is anything at all. Ultimate fate of the universe.

Cosmology portal Physics portal. For some writers, this denotes only the initial singularity, for others the whole history of the universe.

Usually, at least the first few minutes during which helium is synthesized are said to occur "during the Big Bang". However, Hoyle later denied that, saying that it was just a striking image meant to emphasize the difference between the two theories for radio listeners.

The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 20 October Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University. The Origin of the Universe. The Study of the Universe".

Archived from the original on 14 May The second section discusses the classic tests of the Big Bang theory that make it so compelling as the likely valid description of our universe.

How The Universe Works 3. Retrieved 11 February

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